Sameer Hinduja, Ph.D. and Justin W. Patchin, Ph.D.

Cyberbullying Research Center

Sameer Hinduja, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor at Florida Atlantic University and Justin W. Patchin, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor at the University of Wisconsin‐Eau Claire.  Together, they lecture across the United States on the causes and consequences of cyberbullying and offer comprehensive workshops for parents, teachers, counselors, mental health professionals, law enforcement, youth and others concerned with addressing and preventing online aggression.

Cyberbullying Fact Sheet



The Alabama Student Harassment Prevention Act ‐ HB 0216

Schools must develop policies to help with harassment, includes electronic forms of bullying; “punishment shall conform with applicable federal and state disability, antidiscrimination, and education laws and school discipline policies.”


House Bill 482 (2006): Sec. 14.33.200. Harassment, intimidation, and bullying policy. (a) By July 1, 2007, each school district shall adopt a policy that prohibits the harassment, intimidation, or bullying of any student. The policy must also include provisions for an appropriate punishment schedule up to and including expulsion and reporting of criminal activity to local law enforcement authorities.
05‐09‐06 : Passed the Legislature, to be transmitted to the Governor for signature.
Various statutes:


H.B. 3203: Only has statute on schools adopting a policy for bullying and harassment in schools. Nothing involving cyber bullying or electronic forms of harassment

H.B. 2368 (2005): requires school district governing boards to adopt and enforce procedures that prohibit the harassment, bullying and intimidation of pupils on school grounds, school property, school buses, school bus stops and at school sponsored events and activities


H. B. 1072, 2007 Code §6‐18‐514(a) Anti‐bullying Policies; now Act 115;‐18‐514.htm

Policies must state the consequences for engaging in the prohibited conduct, which may vary depending on the age or grade of the student involved.


SB 719 (Bullying Prevention for School Safety and Crime Reduction Act of 2003); Chapter 828.
2001 Cal. Stats., A.B. 79, Chap. 646 Requires the Department of Education to develop model policies on the prevention of bullying and on conflict resolution, makes the model policies available to school districts and authorizes school districts to adopt one or both policies for incorporation into the school safety plan.
PDF file:‐02/bill/asm/ab_0051‐0100/ab_79_bill_20011010_chaptered.pdf
HTML file:‐02/bill/asm/ab_0051‐0100/ab_79_bill_20011010_chaptered.html

A. B. 86, 2008 Code §32261 (g) Lieu. Pupil safety. Gives school officials grounds to suspend a pupil or recommend a pupil for expulsion for bullying, including, but not limited to, bullying by electronic act.


SB 01‐080 policy:
“Colorado has no official anti bullying law. Colorado State Lawmakers chose a “Legislative declaration” and creation of Policy. Policy can be as good as law.” – From bullypolice.
School Districts are required by law to adopt a written conduct and discipline code relating to the discipline, conduct, safety and welfare of all students enrolled in the public schools of the District. Section 22‐32‐109.1(2)(a)(I), C.R.S. (2000); “Safe School Plan.” Must include “a specific policy concerning bullying prevention and education, including information related to the development and implementation of any bullying prevention programs. Section 22‐32‐109.1(2)(a)(I) through (X), C.R.S. (2002).”

Criminal sanction: See pg. 32‐33 of link

Defines that a policy must be made in schools about bullying and it is up to the school to decide the punishment. Does not include electronic forms of punishment.


2002 Connecticut Public Act 2‐119, SHB 5425; Statutes § 10‐222d; defines a policy that Schools must adhere to for the severity of bullying but does not clearly define punishments nor explain thoroughly what bullying means.‐222d.htm
H.B. 5826 (2008):‐00160‐R00HB‐05826‐PA.htm


HB NO. 7: An Act to amend Title 14 of the Delaware code to establish the School Bullying Prevention Act.‐%20anti‐bullying%20bill.pdf

Section 1. Amend Title 14 of the Delaware Code by adding thereto a new § 4123A to read as follows: “§ 4123A. School Bullying Prevention and Criminal Youth Gang Detection Training.

Section 2. Amend Chapter 41, Title 14 of the Delaware Code by adding thereto a new § 4112D, to read as follows: “§ 4112D. School Bullying Prevention.

Nothing mentioned other than under (h) identify consequences must be met for bullying actions; up to the school to decide punishment


H.B. 699 s. 1006.147: School Safety “Jeffrey Johnson Stand Up for All Students Act”: Consequences must be made clear by the school district;


1999 Georgia Laws, H.B. 84, Chap. 282 (O.C.G.A. § 20‐2‐751.4 and O.C.G.A. § 20‐2‐751.5.) Requires the implementation of a character education program at all grade levels that is to include methods of discouraging bullying and violent acts against fellow students. Adds razor blade to the definition of weapon.

SB 250 (2010): update: Students found bullying third time in school year are sent to alternative school, requires that policies against bullying be posted in all middle and high schools, requires that bullying policies be included in student and parent handbooks.


SB2094.DOC: If any child of school age engages in bullying or cyberbullying, the child, and the father, mother, or legal guardian, shall be fined not more than $100 for each separate offense.


H.B. 750, “Jared’s Law”: Student who personally violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor; possible suspension or denial of school attendance;


S.B. 3266 (2010) (105 ILCS 5/27‐13.3, 5/27‐23.7, 5/10‐20.14);

“105 ILCS 135/1‐2 (2008) defines harassment through electronic communications. The definition includes “making any obscene comment, request, suggestion or proposal with an intent to offend,” and “threatening injury to the person or to the property of the person to whom the electronic communication is directed or to any of his family or household members.” Violation of the provisions of the statute will result in a class B misdemeanor.”

H.B. 6391: Beginning with the 2010‐2011 school year, a school district must include in the age‐appropriate curriculum topics devices, including, but not limited to, the risks and consequences of dissemination and transmission of sexually explicit images and video. The age‐appropriate unit of instruction may be incorporated into the current courses of study regularly taught in the district’s schools, as determined by the school board. Nothing about the actual penalty other than it is up to the school.


HB 1276: Amends the definition of “bullying” to include communications transmitted from an electronic communications device or though a social networking web site. http://www.indiana‐‐2%20_2_.pdf: page 49

Senate Enrolled Act No. 285:
IC 20‐30‐5.5; IC 20‐33‐8‐0.2; IC 20‐33‐8‐13.5; IC 5‐2‐10.1‐2; IC 5‐2‐10.1‐11.12

See also:

A school corporation may utilize a domestic violence prevention organization to assist with the instruction or programs regarding domestic violence that including communications transmitted from an electronic communications device or though a social networking web site.


S.F. 61, 2007 Code §280.28 Harassment and Bullying;; Just describes that consequences must be enacted by the schools.


H.B. 2310: defines bullying

H.B 2758, 2008 Statutes Annotated §72‐8256: defines cyberbullying; up to schools to decide punishment;


Chapter 125, H.B. 91; Communicates, while enrolled as a student in a local school district, with or about another school student, anonymously or otherwise, by telephone, the Internet, telegraph, mail, or any other form of electronic or written communication in a manner which a reasonable person under the circumstances should know would cause the other student to suffer fear of physical harm, intimidation, humiliation, or embarrassment and which serves no purpose of legitimate communication. Punishment is a Class B misdemeanor.;; Each local board of education shall be responsible for formulating a code of acceptable behavior and discipline to apply to the students in each school operated by the board.


H.B. 364, Act 230;

H.B. 1458; School board may charge fee to attend conflict resolution class/es, not to exceed $100; Provides relative to cyberbullying and student codes of conduct adopted by local school boards, not passed for all School before or by August, 1, 2010.


P.L. 2005, Ch. 307

Statute Title 20‐A 1001.15H (2005)

“requires school administrative units to establish procedures and policies to address bullying, harassment, and sexual harassment based on the model policies developed by Subcommittee on School and Community Climate of the Children’s Cabinet.”

SP035501: Current law requires each school board to adopt a policy that addresses injurious
hazing. This bill defines “cyberbullying” as injurious hazing by any verbal, textual or graphic
communication of any kind effected, created or transmitted by the use of any electronic device, including
but not limited to a computer, telephone, cellular telephone, text messaging device and personal digital
assistant. Punishment is up to the School Board.


H.B. 199, 2008 Code §7‐424, 7‐424.1 Bullying, Harassment and Intimidation;; Up to the schools to establish policy for punishment.


S.B. 261 (S2323);; Each school district, commonwealth charter school and non‐public school shall provide to all school staff annual written notice of the bullying prevention and intervention plan. The faculty and staff at each school shall be trained annually on the bullying prevention and intervention plan applicable to the school. Relevant sections of the bullying prevention and intervention plan shall be included in a district or school employee handbook. Define clearly what cyber bullying is and how severe it can be on schools.


HB 4162; “Matt’s Safe School Law”;‐2008/billengrossed/House/pdf/2007‐HEBH‐4162.pdf

HB 5093 (2009); “Bullying” means conduct, including, but not limited to, conduct in person or using a telecommunications access devices. The schools shall add a policy to decide the punishments.

Senate Bill 1458 (2010): Education; discipline; adoption and implementation of policy prohibiting harassment, intimidation, or cyberbullying; require. Amends 1976 PA 451 (MCL 380.1 ‐ 380.1852) by adding sec. 1310b. (‐2010/billintroduced/Senate/htm/2010‐SIB‐1458.htm)

House Bill 6468 (2010): Crimes; other; cyberbullying; prohibit, and provide penalties. Amends 1931 PA 328 (MCL 750.1 ‐ 750.568) by adding sec. 411w. (‐2010/billintroduced/House/htm/2010‐HIB‐6468.htm)
Proposed but never passed.


S.B. 646, 2007 Statutes §121A.0695; Includes cyberbullying be incorporated into harassment prevention policies;

S.F. No. 971;


S.B. 2390 (2001); “2001 Miss. Laws, S.B. 2390 ‐ Directs the State Board of Education to develop a list of recommended conflict resolution and peer mediation programs that address responsible decision making, the causes and effects of school violence and harassment, cultural diversity, and nonviolent methods for resolving conflict, including peer mediation. Requires the board to make the list available to local school administrative units and school buildings by the beginning of the 2002‐2003 school year.”



S.B. 818;‐bill/tat/SB818.pdf; “Currently, harassment is a Class A misdemeanor. Under this act, it is a Class A misdemeanor unless 1) committed by a person twenty‐one years of age or older against a person seventeen years of age or younger; or 2) the person has previously committed the crime of harassment. In such cases, harassment is a class D felony.”


No law.


L.B. 205, 2008: R.R.S. Nebraska 121A.069579‐2,137; Grounds for long‐term suspension, expulsion, or mandatory reassignment, subject to the procedural provisions of the Student Discipline Act, when such activity occurs on school grounds, in a vehicle owned, leased, or contracted by a school being used for a school purpose or in a vehicle being driven for a school purpose by a school employee or by his or her designee, or at a school‐sponsored activity or athletic event


S.B. 163 (chapter 188); “Cyber‐bullying” means bullying through the use of electronic communication; “Electronic communication” means the communication of any written, verbal or pictorial information through the use of an electronic device, including, without limitation, a telephone, a cellular phone, a computer or any similar means of communication. Section 7 of this bill requires each school district to adopt the policy for inclusion in its policy on the provision of a safe and respectful learning environment;; penalty of misdemeanor.‐388.html#NRS388Sec123

New Hampshire

Starts July 1, 2010
2000 N.H. Laws, S.B. 360; HB 1523; Creates the Pupil Safety and Violence Prevention Act. Requires local school boards to adopt a pupil safety and violence prevention policy that addresses bullying and provides technical assistance. Requires school employees to report any information regarding bullying behavior to the school principal and provides immunity to any school employee who makes such a report from any cause of action arising from a failure to remedy the reported incident.

HB 1523 (2010); Update which revises the Pupil Safety and Violence Prevention Act. “The sole purpose of this chapter is to protect all children from bullying and cyberbullying.” RSA 193‐F:2 through RSA 193‐F:5 are repealed and reenacted, and 193‐F: 6 through 193‐F:10 added. Takes effect beginning July 1, 2010.

The school board of each school district shall adopt a written policy prohibiting bullying, harassment, intimidation, and cyberbullying. A school district shall involve, to the greatest extent practicable, pupils, parents, administrators, school staff, school volunteers, community representatives, and local law enforcement agencies in the process of developing the policy. To the extent possible, the school district policy should be integrated with the school’s curriculum, discipline policies, behavior programs, and other violence prevention efforts.

New Jersey

S.B. 993, 2007: New Jersey Statutes §18A:37‐14; Nothing said about the punishment other than it’s up to the School District and the “electronic Communication” is added to the policy of Harassment in Schools. Examples could range from expulsion to detention;;

New Mexico

NMAC 6.12.7; Statutory regulation which has the force of law;

New York


Establishes a class B misdemeanor of failure to report hazing; prohibits bullying or cyber‐bullying on school property; requires instruction to discourage bullying in schools and polices for schools to be enacted.

“Commissioner’s Regulation 100.2 (l) and Education Law 2801

Requires each board of education to adopt and enforce a code of conduct, which includes disciplinary measures to be taken in incidents involving the use of physical force or harassment.

Education Law 2801‐a

Requires school safety plans to contain strategies for improving communication among students and between students and staff and reporting of potentially violent incidents, such as creating a forum or designating a mentor for students concerned with bullying or violence and establishing anonymous reporting mechanisms for school violence.”

Senate Bill No. S 1925 – 2003

“Dignity for All Students Act” to afford all students in public schools an environment free of harassment and discrimination based on actual or perceived race, national origin, ethnic group, religion, disability, sexual orientation, gender or sex;
Passed by the NY State Senate on June 22, 2010, governor expected to sign it into law.

North Carolina

H.B.1261; Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of cyber‐bullying, which
offense shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor if the defendant is 18 years of age or older at the time the offense is committed. If the defendant is under the age of 18 at the time the offense is committed, the offense shall be punishable as a Class 2 misdemeanor;

S.B. 526;

North Dakota

No state policy specifically addressing schools. However Code 12.1.17‐07 (2009) makes harassment via phone, in writing or via electronic communication a Class A misdemeanor.


H.B. 276 ;

S.B. 126 (pending); Require a board of education to adopt a policy that prohibits bullying by electronic means, to require a school district’s harassment policy to address acts that occur off school property but materially disrupt the educational environment of the school, to require a school district annually to provide training on the district’s bullying policy for district employees and volunteers


S.B.1941, 2008: 70 Oklahoma Statutes §24‐100.3; Adopts a School Bullying Prevention Act that orders School Districts to adopt a policy for Harassment and bullying that included electronic forms.;

H.B. 2215/ S.B. 992 enact the Bully Prevention Act, define bullying; amend 70 O.S. 2001, Section 24‐100


H.B. 2637, 2007: Oregon Revised Statutes §339.351, §339.356; specifically defines Cyber bullying unlike many other states. Does not have penalty other than up to the School District to decide, but an Act has been put into place that it is making Schools have a policy;


H.B. 1067, 2008: 24 Pennsylvania Statutes §1303.1‐A; rquires school systems to develop policies prohibiting bullying, including through electronic means. Also defines bullying as harassment with electronic means;

Rhode Island

S. 2012, 2008: General Laws §16‐21‐26; school districts adopt policies to determine how to deal with this bullying; repeat offenders of the policy under Rhode Island general law will go to family court.

South Carolina

H.B. 3573, 2006: South Carolina Code §59‐63‐120, §59‐63‐140; Extends bullying to electronic means of communication. Developed Safe School Climate Act which leaves it up to School Districts to decide the actions to take;‐2006/bills/3573.htm

South Dakota

No law.


S.B. 1621;

S.B.113; A misdemeanor (up to 1 year in prison and a $2,500 fine) for making threats made online as well as certain instances of cyberharassment.


H.B. 283; Tex. Educ. Code Ann 25.0342, 37.217, 37.001, 37.083;

SB1725 (pending); Amends the Education code to include electronic means of bullying. Penalty is assigned


HB325: Requires local school boards and local charter boards to adopt a policy, on or before September 1, 2009, for reporting and responding to bullying, hazing, or retaliation;;

“State Board of Education Policy R277‐613‐1 (2009) defines Cyber Bullying as “the use of email, instant messaging, chat rooms, pagers, cell phones or other forms of information technology to deliberately harass, threaten, or intimidate someone for the purpose of placing a school employee or student in fear of physical harm to the school employee or student or harm to property of the school employee or student. The policy requires each school district to implement a policy prohibiting bullying and hazing consistent with Code 53A‐11a‐301 (2008).”


2004 Vermont Act 117; 16 V.S.A. § 11(a)(32); An Act was enabled in memory of Ryan Patrick Halligan who was severely bullied electronically. The penalty is to have schools develop a plan to notify parents of bullying along with the victim and expulsion may be a consequence. The law passed is called the Vermont Bully’s Prevention Law;;


H.B.1624; Virginia must design a model policy for means of Harassment and others means of bullying including standards, consistent with state, federal and case laws, for school board policies on alcohol and drugs, gang‐related activity, hazing, vandalism, trespassing, threats, search and seizure, disciplining of students with disabilities, intentional injury of others, self‐defense, bullying, the use of electronic means for purposes of bullying, harassment, and intimidation, and dissemination of such policies to students, their parents, and school personnel; and (iii) standards for in‐service training of school personnel in and examples of the appropriate management of student conduct and student offenses in violation of school board policies;‐bin/legp504.exe?000+cod+22.1‐279.6


S.B. 5288, 2007: Revised Code of Washington §28A.300.285; Adds cyber bullying to the Harassment and bullying Act that Schools must have a policy for; terms of penalty are determined by the School;‐10/Pdf/Bills/Session%20Law%202010/2801‐S.SL.pdf

West Virginia

2001 West Virginia Acts, H.B. 3023, Chap. 103 (W.Va. Code Ann.18‐2C‐3);;
“Synopsis ‐ 2001 West Virginia Acts, H.B. 3023, Chap. 103 Requires county school boards to develop and adopt a policy prohibiting harassment, intimidation or bullying on school property or at school‐sponsored events. Requires state board of education to develop a model policy to assist county boards. Requires policy to include definition, statement prohibiting harassment, intimidation or bullying, reporting procedures, notification of parents, procedures for response and investigation, process for documentation of incidents, strategy for protecting victims from further harassment or bullying after a report is made and a disciplinary procedure for students found guilty.”


2009 SENATE BILL 154 ‐‐154.pdf
947.0125 Unlawful use of computerized communication systems; Class B misdemeanor; a fine up to $1,000, or imprisonment for up to 90 days, or both.


H.B.0223 Safe School Climate Act; Orders the Safe School Climate Act that all School Districts must have a policy in regard to the bullying (including electronically) and the punishments are the discretion of the Schools;

District of Columbia

DCMR 5‐2405.5:, DCMR 5‐2503.2:
B18‐0770 (proposed); Bullying includes electronic forms of communication. A policy would be sent in place that all schools follow.

HR1966 (pending); Megan Meier Cyberbullying Prevention Act; whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication, with the intent to coerce, intimidate, harass, or cause substantial emotional distress to a person, using electronic means to support severe, repeated, and hostile behavior, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.

Sameer Hinduja, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor at Florida Atlantic University and Justin W. Patchin, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor at the University of Wisconsin‐Eau Claire. Together, they lecture across the United States on the causes and consequences of cyberbullying and offer comprehensive workshops for parents, teachers, counselors, mental health professionals, law enforcement, youth and others concerned with addressing and preventing online aggression.

The Cyberbullying Research Center is dedicated to providing up‐to‐date information about the nature, extent, causes, and consequences of cyberbullying among adolescents. For more information, visit © 2010Cyberbullying Research Center ‐Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

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